Centre of Urban History, Culture and Media

Story of the Month - February 2018

Story of the Month - February 2018 

每月故事 - 二零一八年二月

Have you ever considered emigrating from Hong Kong?




A significant percentage of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people in Hong Kong said they have, according to an online survey conducted by Prof. Suen Yiu Tung, centre member and sociologist at the Gender Studies Programme. The survey found that as much as 39 percent of LGB people had considered leaving “because of the lack of legal protection against discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation”.

根據本中心成員、在性別研究課程任教的社會學家孫耀東教授的一項網上調查,相當一部分香港的同性戀和雙性戀者(LGB)表示曾有此考慮。該調查發現,高達百分之三十九的 LGB人士曾以香港缺乏反性取向歧視的法律保障為由而考慮離開。



 Even though Hong Kong claims to be “Asia’s World City” in its official slogan, it still has no legislation to protect sexual minorities from discrimination. Same-sex marriage is still not recognized by law. Prof. Suen, who has conducted multiple research projects on sexuality issues, argues that the lack of legal protection and recognition for sexual minorities is detrimental in attracting and retaining talent. Nearly half of the LGB people surveyed in the aforementioned study have an undergraduate degree, and 23 percent hold a master’s degree or above.




Through rigorous academic research on sexuality issues, Prof. Suen hopes to provide fact-based understanding to dispel prejudices against LGB people and other sexual minorities, as well as to push for legal and policy changes that make our diverse society more tolerant. 




LGBTI activists march for their rights in Hong Kong, during the Hong Kong Pride Parade on 26th November 2016


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Story of the Month - January 2018

Story of the Month - January 2018 

每月故事 - 二零一八年一月

We have often heard that Hong Kong is a city where “East meets West”. But is Hong Kong solely composed of Eastern and Western characteristics? Ever wondered what are the ethnic communities that have settled in Hong Kong since the 19th century? Do Hongkongers have enough intercultural sensibility to appreciate the diverse cultures in their city?  


Centre Director and anthropologist Prof. Siumi Maria Tam’s recent research is on intercultural education and the intersection of academic research and advocacy. Her research reveals that the lack of positive intercultural experiences in daily lives has created myths and misunderstandings towards the ethnic minorities in Hong Kong, leading to cultural ignorance and social marginalization. She believes that cultural diversity should be an asset for Hong Kong as a metropolitan city, and discrimination could be eradicated with the increase of cross-cultural knowledge and positive interethnic relations. Prof. Tam started the Multiculturalism in Action Project (MIA) and has organized a series of intercultural education programs with an emphasis on South Asian cultures.  

本中心主任及人類學家譚少薇教授的新近研究關注跨文化教育,以及學術研究及倡議之間如何相輔相成。她的研究發現:由於日常生活缺乏正面的跨文化體驗,大眾對香港的少數族裔產生不少迷思和誤解,導致文化誤解和社會邊緣化。她認為香港的多元文化環境應被視為這個大都市的重要資產,而歧視則可以透過提升跨文化知識和正面的族群關係化解。譚教授在2013年開展多元文化行動計劃 (MIA),至今舉辦了一系列以南亞文化為主的跨文化教育項目。

Between 2013 and 2016, MIA carried out a series of workshops on Indian, Nepali, Pakistani, Sri Lankan and Bangladeshi cultures to enhance the mutual understanding between local Chinese and South Asian communities. In 2017, a documentary “Intercultural Hong Kong Series: Feeling South Asian” was produced, showcasing the cultural practices such as religious rituals of the South Asian communities in Hong Kong, and explaining the importance of intercultural education. In summer 2017, an interethnic program entitled ICONIC Mums Program was launched. A group of 30 Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Nepali, and Pakistani mums gained intercultural experiences and developed interethnic friendships through a series of self-exploration and self-expression workshops. Afterwards they applied their newly acquired worldviews and skills in designing and organizing community projects which brought social innovation to their neighborhoods. These projects show that individuals are all agents and partners of change irrespective of ethnicity.


To further promote hands-on participation in different ethnic cultures, Prof. Tam and Centre post-doc fellow Dr. Wai-man Tang jointly edited the book What are Celebrating? Multicultural Festivals in Hong Kong (December 2017, Wheatear). It is the first bilingual book introducing 18 ethnic festivals in Hong Kong.  Examples include Teej of the Nepali community, Luciadagen of the Swedish community, and Songkran of the Thai community. These festivals show how different ethnic communities have contributed to Hong Kong’s multicultural landscape, and how they maintain their cultural values and social identity in daily life.


Indeed, Hong Kong society needs more intercultural dialogues and experiences. Prof. Tam believes that intercultural education should be part of the formal education system, while simultaneously the larger society should develop cultural curiosity and opportunities of ethnic interaction on a daily level. Interculturality is the basis to the creation of soft power, which in the long run will form the core content of a future smart city.



 StoryOfTheMonth CUHCM JAN

Photo of Ritual dance in Durga Puja, a West Bengali festival celebrated in Hong Kong


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Story of the Month - November 2017

Story of the Month - November 2017 

每月故事 - 二零一七年十一月

According to the 2016 Census, there are over 46,000 non-Chinese minority students enrolled in local primary and secondary schools, many of whom are of South Asian origin. How do these minority students cope with the local school system while maintaining their heritage culture?


Centre member Prof. Michelle GU Min-yue, a scholar in education, has conducted a study on a group of teenage female secondary students originated from Pakistan. Some of them were born in Hong Kong; others were born in Pakistan and migrated with their family for years. They are all fluent in English and Urdu, and while their written Chinese proficiency is not high, they can communicate in Cantonese.



Prof. Gu found that these girls face multiple marginalization. At home, they face pressure from their gendered heritage custom, such as the unequal position between females and males, and the cultural imposition of arranged marriage at a young age thereby making university education inaccessible. In the larger society, they encounter various types of exclusion due to stereotypes about South Asian “cultural deficiencies” and mainstream society’s insensitivity to the cultural and/or religious practices of ethnic minority groups.


Yet the Pakistani girls are not just passive victims of negative stereotypes. Take one girl’s experience on the MTR as an example. When a local Chinese expressed racist comments about her scarf and skin color in Cantonese, thinking that she did not understand Cantonese. She responded by taking out her phone and speaking in Cantonese. Speaking the language of the majority has afforded her a measure of self-empowerment.



Prof. Gu’s research shows that these participants, as active agents adopt culturally, religiously, behaviourally and linguistically grounded strategies to make the most of the opportunities they have or hope to gain access to. In the meantime they devise the strategies to circumvent the obstacles that they expect to encounter along the way. They also continue to establish new relationships with their surroundings and construct multiple identities as Pakistani, Muslim, female and internationally oriented Hong Kong people, in different contexts in which they navigate. While mainstream culture has to a certain extent released Pakistani girls from the oppression and pressure of religion and customs, more guidance and support is needed to realize their dreams, and to make this release less temporary and uncertain.


Michelle Gu
Photo of Apliu Street, Sham Shui Po, Hong Kong. Sham Shui Po is one of the districts where many Pakistanis reside.



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Story of the Month - October 2017

Story of the Month - October 2017 

每月故事 - 二零一七年十月

How does urban restructuring affect religious communities?


Centre member Prof. Huang Weishan’s research was centered on this question. Trained as a sociologist, Prof. Huang has done fieldwork on religious communities in New York and Shanghai.

中心成員黃維珊教授的研究圍繞著這個問題。 作為社會學家,黃教授曾在紐約和上海對當地的宗教群體進行田野研究。


One of her field site is the Jing’an Temple in in Shanghai. Located in a busy commercial district, this shiny golden temple is one of the three historical temples in the city. During the Cultural Revolution, the temple was severely destroyed. “Not even a bench was left”, says one of her informants. The temple was then turned into a factory. In the 1980s, it was restored into its current form with the support of the government. Prof. Huang found that the temple’s abbot played a vital role in gathering support and resources from the government and local community for the temple’s revival.
上海靜安寺是她的田野考察點之一。 這座金碧輝煌的寺廟位於繁華的商業區,是上海三大名寺之一。 文革期間,寺廟遭到嚴重破壞。 她的報導人說,寺廟裏甚至連一張凳子都沒剩下。 寺廟後來變成一座工廠。 八十年代,在政府的支持下,寺廟被重建成現在的形式。 黃教授發現,寺廟的方丈在重建過程起著至關重要的作用,向政府和當地社區爭取支持和資源。


Prof. Huang’s research shows that rapid modernization and urbanization do not necessarily bring a secularized society. Religion remains important in the lives of many.



Photo of Jing’an Temple in Shanghai (by Weishan Huang)

上海靜安寺 (圖:黃維珊)


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Story of the Month - September 2017

Story of the Month - September 2017 

每月故事 - 二零一七年九月

Aquaculture is an important part of the food production system and a key source of protein in our diet. Unfortunately, social and environmental challenges have put many aquaculture systems in the world under pressure.



Centre member and anthropologist Prof. Sidney Cheung has long been interested in studying coastal communities and aquaculture in different parts of the world, such as fish farmers in Hong Kong and crayfish consumption in China, Japan, and the USA. His latest research is an interdisciplinary collaborative project that looks at oyster farming communities across the globe. The research aims to foster social resilience of these aquaculture communities.  Through understanding how these different oyster farmers manage social and environmental risks, Prof. Cheung’s team tries to identify the key factors that help sustain these communities despite the challenges they face. Prof. Cheung’s latest five-episode documentary series on the oyster farming community in Lau Fau Shan is available at this link (https://youtu.be/b4zCap0Ztko)



In the long term, Prof. Cheung hopes to apply his research in the industry. His goal is to collaborate with researchers in biological science and local oyster industry practitioners to build up a “Pearl River” oyster brand that is internationally known. 



Sidney Cheung 


Caption: One of the several thousand oyster shafts in Shenzhen Bay outside Lau Fau Shan, Northwest New Territory. Pollution from the rapid urban development of the Pearl River Delta area has brought serious challenges to the oyster industry in this region. (Photo by Alan Tse)

圖:新界西北流浮山對出的深圳灣有數千個如圖中的蠔排。珠三角地區快速發展帶來的污染,為當地養蠔業帶來了嚴峻的挑戰。 (謝曉軒攝)


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Story of the Month - August 2017

Story of the Month - August 2017 

每月故事 - 二零一七年八月

The mainstream society often assumes that sex workers are forced into their job. Sex workers are expected to quit prostitution as soon as possible, and few bothered to understand their personal dreams and goals.



Centre member Prof. Raees Baig conducted a research on the economic condition of sex workers to understand why they work in the sex industry. Prof. Baig found that many sex workers have their own life goals, such as saving up enough for their family and to buy a flat, just like many Hongkongers. In collaboration with the JJJ Association, a self-help NGO formed by sex workers, they assessed the effectiveness of financial literacy training for sex workers. Through courses like this, sex workers were able to organize themselves and seek help from one another when there is a problem.



Prejudice from police is a major problem that sex workers face, Prof. Baig said. Because of negative stereotypes against sex workers, the police often treat their cases with low priority. The legal restriction that permits only one sex worker per flat also makes crimes like robbery and murder less visible. Prof. Baig argues that more training to the police is needed to encourage sex workers to seek help from law enforcement in case of crime.



Raees Baig 


Caption: Financial literacy training for sex workers. Photo by JJJ Association.

圖:為性工作者而設的理財課程。 圖片由姐姐仔會提供。


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Story of the Month - April 2017

Story of the Month - April 2017 

每月故事 - 二零一七年四月

"How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?"

"Would you say that most people can be trusted or that you need to be very careful in dealing with people?"

The questions above came from the World Values Survey, a large scale international survey to gather data on changing human values and beliefs and their impact on social and political life. Political scientists Prof. Shu-yun Ma and Prof. Edmund Cheng are conducting the Hong Kong portion of this global survey project with the aim to gather data on changing human values and beliefs and their impact on social and political life. After the Occupy Movement in 2014, Hong Kong society remains deeply divided along political lines. The level of mistrust toward political institutions was heightened. Through this large scale survey that samples at least 2,500 households in Hong Kong, the study aims to find out where people's grievances are coming from, and how social trust can be repaired and maintained for better governance.

Since most of the survey questions are standardized across the world and kept consistent over time, it allows researchers to make comparison across countries as well as to track how values have changed over time. Prof. Ma and Prof. Cheng's research shows how quantitative data can be used to better understand our society.



Edmund Cheng


Caption: A “cultural map” summarizing the result of World Values Survey (Wave 6) conducted during 2010-14. Source: worldvaluesruvey.org



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Story of the Month - March 2017

Story of the Month - March 2017 

每月故事 - 二零一七年三月

China has undergone rapid urbanization and industrialization in the past 30 years. Women have often been seen as exploited factory workers or laid off workers who lost out in the market economy.



Song Jing, a sociologist studying self-employed women in rural village in Zhejiang Province, told another side of the story. One of her interviewee Yu (pseudonym) started learning to do self-employed needlework since she was 14 and later entered a rural factory. After years of hard work, she became the factory's vice manager. She encouraged her daughter to start her own business, while her husband preferred to stay in an urban work unit and doubted about the prestige of rural industries and women's entrepreneurship. Many rural women prefer self-employment than wage-work because it is easier to balance their career and family duties, but some also find great potential of entrepreneurship. Such entrepreneurship could be derived from various forms of self-employment, as a side job, an individual career or a family venture.



Prof. Song's research shows that women are not merely losing out in China's transition to the market economy. They are willing to take the risks, grab opportunities, and make a difference via various pathways including self-employment and entrepreneurship.




Song Jing


Men are often observed in the more capital-intensive self-employment, such as transportation, while women tend to take the more labor-intensive work, such as running food stands. Photo by Song Jing.


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Story of the Month - January 2017

Story of the Month - Janurary 2017 

每月故事 - 二零一七年一月

Do you know that Hong Kong has as many as 300,000 "returned overseas Chinese" rooted in Southeast Asia?



Centre Fellow Dr. Ong Kok-chung, himself a Chinese Malaysian, is interested in the life histories of "returned overseas Chinese". Born mostly in Indonesia or Malaysia, these overseas Chinese had moved to China in the 1950s and 60s to work or study. Some were inspired by the Communist revolution to "contribute to the motherland", while others were expelled by the local regimes due to their connection with communism. In China, however, they were not trusted by the Chinese government because of their "foreign connections" and suffered great hardship during the Cultural Revolution. When policies relaxed in the 1970s, they were allowed to leave China, but they were still blacklisted by their home country, so many of them settled in Hong Kong.



In Hong Kong, these returnees kept a low profile on their Southeast Asian origin, and were seen as new immigrants from mainland China by the locals. Many of them are elderly people, now in their seventies and eighties, who still identify themselves as culturally Chinese and use Mandarin as their most fluent language. This neglected group of migrants is part of what makes Hong Kong a diverse, international city.



Kok chung ONG


Performance of the song "I Love You, China" in the 25th anniversary of the Hong Kong Surabaya Alumni Association, a reminiscence of the complex patriotism shared by many returned overseas Chinese. Photo by Kok-Chung ONG



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Story of the Month - October 2016

Story of the Month - October 2016 

每月故事 - 二零一六年十月

Currently, there are over 340,000 foreign domestic workers (FDWs) in Hong Kong. Most of them are women and from mainly the Philippines and Indonesia. Although many of them have lived and worked in Hong Kong for years, they are not eligible for Hong Kong citizenship due to Hong Kong’s immigration policies. 




Center member and anthropologist Dr. Ju-chen Chen has been researching on Filipino community in Hong Kong with a focus on pageants since 2011. She spent many Sundays with the organizers and contestants. “Domestic workers are actually very busy on Sundays – their only day off,” Dr. Chen said. “For beauty pageant participants, they have to create or order their costumes, arrange for make-up services, join photo-shooting sessions, and also continue to rehearse for the shows.” When Dr. Chen asked them why they spent so much time and money for these events, “I have talent and confidence. I want to show others that they can do it too,they answered. Through beauty contests, these FDWs create a community for themselves and show themselves as well as the society that they are valuable, not merely dispensable temporary labor force.

本中心成員人類學家陳如珍博士從2011年起研究菲律賓外傭群體。其中,她又特別關注菲傭群體所舉辦的選美活動在週日時,往往與比賽的組織者和選美佳麗們一起東奔西跑完成各項準備工作。陳博士說:「大家常說星期日是外傭的休息日。但是外傭們在星期天其實是非常忙碌的。對於選美比賽的參與者而言,她們要自行籌備服裝、安排髮型和化妝的服務參加定裝照的拍攝,還要一再的參與走台步的訓練和選美表演的預演。 」當被問及為什麼要花錢花時間參加這些活動時,她們的答案是:「我有才華和自信。我想要讓別人知道我們一樣,都是有才華又美麗的人」。通過選美比賽,這些菲律賓外傭建立起自己的社群,同時努力讓自己和所處的社會明白她們的價值。希望主流社會不要再視她們為可有可無的短期勞工。



Dr. Chen’s research shows that FDWs, just like everyone else, have multiple identities, such as mothers, event organizers or beauty queens. We should see them as workers with personal life and not “just maids.”




Juchen Chen

Winners of Miss Pinoyshot Princess 2014. Photo by Ju-chen Chen

2014年比諾依攝小姐選美皇后. 攝影: 陳如珍.


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